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Geographical Discoveries

Geographical discoveries are travels carried out by people throughout history in order to reach unknown places. These discoveries often resulted in the discovery of new lands, sea routes, rich resources, trade routes and different cultures. Especially in the 15th and 16th centuries, European sailors and explorers expanded the world map and made extensive geographical discoveries.

1. First Geographical Discoveries:
   15. In the 19th century, European sailors, especially Spanish and Portuguese explorers, made discoveries in search of new sea routes, reaching riches and reaching Asia. Christopher Columbus reached America in 1492 and discovered the New World. In the same period, Vasco da Gama crossed the Indian Ocean and reached India.

2. Discovery of America:
   Columbus's discovery of America initiated the continental interaction of Europe and America. While this discovery is called the discovery of the New World, the first contact with the indigenous peoples of America occurred during this period.

3. Discovery of Sea Routes:
   Discoveries also contributed to the discovery of new sea routes and safe trade routes. This was realized with the discovery of new routes, especially in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

4. Development of Geographic Information:
   The discoveries led to the great improvement of geographical knowledge. Maps of the newly discovered lands were drawn, the geographical features of the new continents were determined, and the world map gradually began to be completed.

5. Geopolitical Changes:
   New discoveries caused major changes in international relations and trade. Overseas colonialism, in particular, led to the expansion of European states around the world.

6. Cultural Interaction:
   Geographical discoveries increased interaction between different cultures. The encounter between the New World and the Old World led to cultural exchange, exchange of goods, and the spread of language.

However, geographical discoveries did not only have positive effects. As a result of contact with indigenous peoples, negative consequences such as the spread of epidemics, colonialism and slave trade have also emerged.

Geographical discoveries are one of the events that have greatly affected human history throughout history and have played an important role in the formation of today's world.

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1. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506):
   Columbus, an Italian sailor and explorer, traveled to the West with the support of Spain in 1492 and discovered America. However, at that time he thought of this continent as India.

2. Vasco da Gama (1460-1524):
   Portuguese explorer Gama became the first European to reach India by crossing the Indian Ocean, passing the Cape of Good Hope in 1498. This discovery allowed the opening of new and profitable routes in maritime trade.

3. Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521):
   Magellan became the first explorer to explore a circular route around the world, traveling between 1519 and 1522. However, although he died before the trip was completed, his team managed to complete the world tour.

4. John Cabot (1450-1500):
   Cabot, an English sailor of Italian origin, was one of the first Europeans to reach North America in 1497 and explore the New World on behalf of England.

5. Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512):
   Italian cartographer and explorer Vespucci is considered one of the first Europeans to discover the South American continent. The American continent was given its name by Martin Waldseemüller in 1507, following Vespucci's discoveries.

6. Hernán Cortés (1485-1547):
   Cortés, a Spanish explorer and colonist, advanced into the interior of Mexico in 1519 and conquered the Aztec Empire. This is an important event in the colonization process after the discovery of America.

These explorers are the names who played leading roles in the discovery of the world during the era of geographical discoveries. However, the consequences of exploration during this period were complex and often had negative effects on indigenous peoples.

Author: Adil Sevim

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