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Middle Ages

The Middle Ages is a period that witnessed significant social, cultural and political changes throughout history. The Middle Ages, which generally cover the period from the fall of the Roman Empire to the beginning of the Renaissance, extend from the 5th century to the 15th century and are known as a period in which feudalism, church influence and wars were particularly prominent in Western Europe.

Beginning of the Middle Ages:
The Middle Ages begins with the collapse of the Roman Empire. The fall of Rome in 476 leads to political instability and social turmoil in Western Europe. During this period, the feudalism system begins to become widespread. Landowners (nobles) provide protection to their peasants in exchange for military service to protect and manage their lands.

Feudalism and Social Order:
Feudalism is the basic economic and social organization system of the Middle Ages. Feudalism, as a system where nobles rule the lands and peasants work on these lands, is one of the determining elements of the social order. The social hierarchy in this period is shaped by the influence of the church.

Church and Religious Influence:
In the Middle Ages, the church played an active role as both a religious and political power. Christianity forms an important part of cultural and intellectual life in this period. The church is a determining factor in access to knowledge, and monasteries continue the tradition of education and writing.

Crusades and Foreign Policy:
During the Middle Ages, a series of Crusades took place between Western Christian states and the Islamic world. These expeditions aimed to capture the holy lands and determined the foreign policy of the Middle Ages. Crusades also lead to cultural interactions and trade.

Urbanization and Economic Change:
Towards the end of the Middle Ages, urbanization increased with the revival of trade and the development of agricultural techniques. Increased trade leads to economic revival towards the end of the Middle Ages and increased trade with new crafts.


Cultural and Artistic Development:
Cultural and artistic developments took place in the Middle Ages. Romanesque and Gothic architectural styles were used in the construction of cathedrals and monasteries. Miniature paintings, manuscript books and music are important elements that reflect the cultural accumulation of the Middle Ages.

End of the Middle Ages:
The Middle Ages ends with the beginning of the Renaissance. The plague epidemic that developed towards the end of the 14th century caused population decline and social changes. The Renaissance is considered a period of enlightenment against the dark period of the Middle Ages.

Conclusion and Evaluation:
The Middle Ages is a period that served as a bridge throughout history and brought about many transformations. Elements such as feudalism, church influence, and the Crusades are the defining features of this period. The Middle Ages is a complex phase that includes both feudal structures, which are considered as the dark period, and many important developments in cultural, economic and political terms.

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Written by: Adil Sevim

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