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Mine Transfers

Mineral periods refer to the development of metal use and metallurgical skills in the prehistoric periods of humanity. These periods consist of stages that reflect the evolution of the discovery and use of metals such as copper, bronze and iron. The use of metal allowed people to make their tools, weapons, ornaments and many other things more effective and durable, and triggered cultural, economic and technological developments.

1. Copper Age (9000 BC - 3300 BC):
This period, which started with the processing of copper, is the first step in the transition from the stone age to the metal age. The use of the first copper tools had a major impact on areas such as agriculture, hunting and building construction. Since copper can be found free in nature, it was processed metallurgically in early periods.

2. Bronze Age (3300 BC - 1200 BC):
Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, allowed people to develop metalworking techniques. Bronze tools were harder and more durable, leading to significant advances in agriculture, trade and military technology during this period. The Bronze Age is also associated with the transition to settled life and the emergence of complex societies.

3. Iron Age (1200 BC - 1 AD):
It is a metal that is more difficult to process compared to previous periods because it is not found freely in nature, like iron, copper and bronze. However, the advantages of iron, especially its cheapness and durability, encouraged its use. Iron was widely used in many areas such as agricultural tools, weapons and building materials. This period witnessed the rise of great civilizations, especially in the Middle East.

4. Bronze Age (3300 BC - 1200 BC):
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and was first used around 3300 BC. Bronze was preferred in the production of weapons and tools because it was more durable and harder than bronze. The Bronze Age emerged independently and contributed to the development of settled societies in different regions such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and the Indian subcontinent.

5. **Iron Age (1200 BC - 1 AD):
Iron began to be widely used around 1200 BC, marking the beginning of a new era. Iron replaced other metals such as copper and bronze because it was widely available and malleable. This period led to technological and social changes in many cultures, with the widespread use of iron.

Conclusion and Evaluation:
Mining eras have played a key role in humanity's technological evolution and shaped the history of civilization. The use of metals has led to great advances in many fields such as agriculture, warfare, trade and industry, making societies more complex and contributing to the rise of civilizations. These periods include a number of important innovations that increased people's ability to shape their environments and use resources more effectively.


Some sources divide the mining periods into 3: Copper, Bronze and Iron. This separation was made because bronze was counted as bronze. For more detailed information about these subheadings, click on the heading you want to get information about in the table below.

Written by: Adil Sevim

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