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The first era

The Antiquity is a whole of the oldest and fundamental periods in human history, covering the stages from prehistoric times to ancient times. This period includes the prehistoric periods between 3000 and 500 BC, beginning before 3000 BC, and the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Sub-Indian Continent, China, and the Mediterranean.

Prehistoric Periods:
The first part of Antiquity deals with prehistoric times. During this period, basic features such as the birth of Homo sapiens, the use of stone tools, the discovery of fire and the hunting-gathering lifestyle emerged. Human communities in this period left the first traces of social life by leaving cultural expressions such as cave paintings and stone structures.

Civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt:
The First Age has also witnessed the emergence of great civilizations throughout history. While Mesopotamia is known for its civilizations established between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Egypt is known for its great civilization that developed on the fertile lands of the Nile River. These civilizations have achieved a number of important achievements, such as the invention of writing, mathematical developments and architectural structures.

Civilizations of the Sub-Indian Continent and China:
The First Age also hosted important civilizations in the Sub-Indian Continent. Ancient cities such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro bear traces of the developments of this period. At the same time, in China, the Shang and Zhou Dynasties laid the foundations of traditional Chinese civilization. These civilizations advanced in areas such as agriculture, metalworking and writing.


Ancient Greece and Rome:
In the later periods of the Antiquity, the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations left a significant impact on western Europe. Greek civilization achieved significant success in fields such as philosophy, science, art and democratic government. Rome, on the other hand, established a vast empire and made various contributions to law, architecture and engineering.

Mediterranean Civilizations:
The Antiquity also includes a number of civilizations around the Mediterranean. Phoenicians, Carthage, Etruscans and other Mediterranean civilizations created a rich civilization environment through seafaring, trade and cultural exchange. During this period, the Mediterranean served as a bridge between civilizations.

Art and Culture:
The art and culture of the Ancient Age carries a richness that reflects the worldview and aesthetic understanding of the period. Great advances have been made in fields such as sculpture, architecture, literature and philosophy. Ancient art has gained an important place with works representing mythology, history and daily life.

Conclusion and Evaluation:
The Antiquity is a period that includes the basic stages in human history and paved the way for the emergence of many civilizations. This era includes a number of important technological, social, cultural and political developments and is a critical reference point for understanding humanity's past.

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Written by: Adil Sevim

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