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The Modern Age generally covers the period from the late 18th century to the mid-20th century. This period witnessed a series of events such as the industrial revolution, political revolutions, the collapse of empires, the rise of national states and cultural transformations. The Modern Age is known as a phase in which the foundations of the modern world were laid and deep changes took place in many areas.

Industrial Revolution and Industrial Society:
In the early Modern Age, the Industrial Revolution triggered a major transformation. Mechanization, the spread of factories, the construction of railways and technological developments transformed the agricultural society into an industrial society. This period increased productivity in production and led to economic, social and demographic changes.

Political Revolutions:
The Modern Age also includes a number of important political revolutions. The American War of Independence (1775-1783) and the French Revolution (1789-1799) laid the foundations of modern democracy with struggles against monarchical orders. These revolutions foreshadowed modern political arrangements by emphasizing the principles of individual rights, equality and freedom.

Imperialism and Colonialism:
The Modern Age is a period in which the expansion policies of European states around the world intensified. In this process, imperialist states tried to control economic resources by establishing colonies in Africa, Asia and America. This process made significant contributions to cultural interactions and the structuring of the world economy.

The Rise of National States:
The Modern Age also includes a period in which national states rose. Throughout the 19th century, many European countries pursued various policies to strengthen national identity. This process paved the way for the emergence of modern nation states and the efforts of ethnic groups to establish their own states.


Post-Industrial Society and the Information Age:
Towards the end of the Modern Age, rapid developments in information and communication technologies marked the beginning of post-industrial society and the information age. Computers, the internet and digital technologies have fundamentally changed economic structures, business and cultural practices.

World Wars and the Cold War:
The 20th century witnessed major conflicts such as two world wars and the Cold War. The First World War (1914-1918) and the Second World War (1939-1945) reshaped the world map and political balances. The Cold War (1947-1991) period includes the ideological conflict and nuclear arms race between the USA and the USSR.

Globalization and Environmental Concerns:
Towards the end of the Modern Age, the process of globalization accelerated. The global integration of economic relations, cultural exchange and increase in international trade have deepened the interaction around the world. However, during the same period, environmental concerns and sustainability issues also came to the fore.

Conclusion and Evaluation:
The Modern Age is one of the most rapid and effective periods of change in human history. Events such as the Industrial Revolution, political revolutions, imperialism and globalization played a key role in shaping the modern world. The Modern Age brings together historical continuity and change, encompassing many important transformations that fundamentally change societies, economies and cultures.

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Written by: Adil Sevim

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